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Science and Global Issues: Biology, Cells: Improving Global Health

Science and Global Issues: Biology, Cells: Improving Global Health

26-40 (6-8 weeks)

Unit issue: Human health is increasingly subject to emerging global patterns, including extreme heat events, changes in the frequency of disease, and climate effects on the food supply.

Overarching question: What are the challenges to human health in a changing world? 

In this unit, students explore the idea that living organisms have to maintain certain internal conditions in order to live in a changing environment. Students focus on the importance of a stable internal temperature, adequate hydration, and quality nutrition as key factors in maintaining normal functioning. They investigate how human survival relies on being able to maintain internal stability (homeostasis) during change. Students construct an understanding of the structures and functions of various levels of organization in an organism’s body systems in maintaining homeostasis.

Performance Expectations 
HS-LS1-1: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins, which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. 
HS-LS1-2: Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. 
HS-LS1-3: Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. 
HS-LS1-5: Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. 
HS-LS1-6: Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules. 
HS-LS1-7: Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed, resulting in a net transfer of energy. 
HS-LS2-3: Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. 
HS-LS2-7: Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.

Content in Science and Global Issues: Biology, Cells: Improving Global Health is organized into activities, as follows:

Activity Title Activity Overview
1. Survival Needs A scenario involving an environment of extreme heat motivates students’ exploration of the phenomenon of homeostasis and the environmental conditions that can challenge the body’s ability to maintain homeostasis. Students investigate the effects of extreme heat by imagining a survival scenario in a desert and ranking the importance of 13 items (such as food, water, and clothing) for survival. Through this exploration of challenges to homeostasis, students develop concepts related to stability and change in the human body. Students begin to generate questions about how the body maintains homeostasis. Working toward HS-LS1-3, Working toward HS-LS2-7
2. Everyday Hydration Students consider the effects of dehydration on the structure and function of the human body, using plant cells as a model. Students conduct an investigation of plant cells to explore the effects of changing conditions on homeo-stasis at the level of the cell. They apply what they observe at the cellular level to create an explanation of how these changing conditions affect other levels of structure and function. A question about tourist water consumption raises the issue of sustainability and prompts students to weigh evidence and consider the trade-offs of limiting the number of tourists at popular travel destinations. Note: “Review and Refresh: Cell Structure and Function,” an optional reading provided in the Student Book, can serve as either a review of NGSS middle school cell concepts or a reference for students. Working toward HS-LS1-2, Working toward HS-LS1-3, Working toward HS-LS2-7
3. Homeostasis Disrupted Students explore three case studies on infectious and non-infectious diseases that explain how disruptions to homeostasis can result in illness or be caused by illness. They examine models of how the body’s systems and subsystems work together to maintain homeostasis when challenged with changing external or internal conditions. The role of negative feedback loops in maintaining homeostasis is introduced. Stu-dents apply what they learn about specific feedback loops to create another model. Working toward HS-LS1-2, Working toward HS-LS1-3, Working toward HS-LS2-7
4. Body Systems in Balance As students sort cards representing levels of organization in the human body system, they develop models of four different systems—cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, and endocrine—at varying levels of organization and scale. They apply what they learn to construct explanations for how various diseases disrupt the nor-mal functions of body systems and thereby disrupt homeostasis. Working toward HS-LS1-2, Working toward HS-LS1-3
5. Evidence of Disease Based on their observations of the blood cells of normal individuals and individuals with disease symptoms, students construct causal explanations of how structural changes observed at the cellular level can lead to disruptions in the function of tissues, organs, body systems, and the organism and thereby disrupt homeostasis. Students discuss how knowing the ways in which levels of organization in a human body system interact helps doctors and scientists diagnose and study diseases. Working toward HS-LS1-2, Working toward HS-LS1-3
6. Specialized Cells and Disease Students make sense of how various diseases disrupt normal cellular functions, and further develop the idea that a disruption at one level of hierarchy of a system can disrupt its overall functioning and homeostasis. Students use a computer simulation to explore how specialized cells and their specialized protein components carry out normal functions on a cellular level. Students then develop and use a model drawn from the simulation to construct explanations of how disease can disrupt normal functioning at the cellular level. This activity provides an opportunity to assess Performance Expectation HS-LS1-2. Working toward HS-LS1-1.
7. Homeostasis and Medical Treatment The worldwide spread of COVID-19 (caused by the novel coronavirus) highlights many issues related to global health, sustainability, and science. Students read about the effect of the disease on interacting systems and their functions. A feedback loop on breathing helps explain how homeostasis is disrupted. Students consider information about human immune responses and medical treatments used to restore homeostasis. Students are further assessed on Performance Expectation HS-LS1-2. Working toward HS-LS1-3 Working toward HS-LS2-7
8. Feedback Loops in Humans Students plan and conduct an investigation to gather data on how human body systems—specifically, the circulatory and respiratory systems—interact to maintain homeostasis. Students analyze and interpret data on their own heart and respiratory rates before and after exercise, and construct an explanation of how these two systems interact to perform a function. During their work in Procedure Part B, students are assessed on Performance Expectation HS-LS1-3. Students use the relevant science and engineering practice of planning and carrying out investigations as they complete Part B. Students later use the science and engineering practice of constructing explanations and designing solutions to communicate their understanding of how feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. Applying HS-LS1-2
9. Global Nutrition Students interpret data to identify global disparities in the food sup-ply and explain the impacts of an unhealthy food supply on human homeostasis related to energy balance. They begin to construct an explanation of the ways that humans use food as a source of energy and matter. Applying HS-LS1-3, Working toward HS-LS1-6, Working toward HS-LS2-7
10. Burning Calories Students investigate the energy stored in food by measuring the energy transferred from food to the environment when the food is burned. They use their results and a systems approach to develop a model to explain the flow and conservation of energy in the food-environment-water system they are using to measure energy transfer. Students apply what they have learned to develop a preliminary idea of how to use graphs to model the energy changes that take place during a combustion reaction or cellular respiration. Working toward HS-LS1-6, Working toward HS-LS1-7, Working toward HS-LS2-3
11. How Plants Make Food Students more closely examine the process of photosynthesis through experiments from the history of science. Students draw on their investigations in the previous activity and the evidence provided in this activity to construct and revise an explanation for the formation of carbon-based molecules and the storage of energy during photo-synthesis. Students consider how new food products could potentially address global nutritional needs and how this relates to the issue of sustainability. This activity provides an opportunity to assess Performance Expectation HS-LS1-5, Working toward HS-LS1-6
12. Photosynthesis and the Environment Students design and conduct an investigation of how environmental variables affect the rate of matter cycling and energy flow due to photosynthesis. They consider limitations on the precision of the data and refine their designs accordingly. They relate their findings to the previous activity on the effects of global changes on nutritional sustainability and to their understandings about the movement of matter and energy that they began to develop in Ecology: Living on Earth. Applying HS-LS1-5
13. Feeding the World’s Population Students reinforce their under-standing of global changes that can affect the supply and quality of food and how this has resulted in a decrease in available food calories in some parts of the world. Graphs and data sets provide multiple models from which students construct preliminary explanations of the changing supply and quality of food. Students generate questions, determine patterns they see in the data, and consider the sustain-ability of the food supply and how changes in food supply and quality might affect human health.. Applying HS-LS1-5, Working toward HS-LS1-6, Working toward HS-LS2-7
14. Investigating Cellular Respiration Students plan and carry out an investigation of respiration by germinated beans to produce data that will serve as evidence for the continual need for cellular respiration by bean plants. Students observe their evidence for the breakdown of glucose during the chemical process of respiration through the release of carbon dioxide as a product, and they identify factors that do and do not affect the rate of cellular respiration. Students apply the results of their investigation to explain how plants are able to survive in the winter after dropping their leaves and how the sustainability of the food supply might be affected by global changes that affect plants. Working toward HS-LS1-6, Working toward HS-LS1-7
15. Energy For Life This activity provides a deeper dive into the mechanism for the energy changes that take place during cellular respiration. Students build their understanding of a critical difference between combustion and cellular respiration: In combustion, the chemical energy stored in food is released as thermal energy and light, whereas in cellular respiration, some of the chemical energy stored in food is released as thermal energy to maintain body temperature, but a significant amount is stored in a form useful to cells. Students continue to build their disciplinary knowledge about cellular respiration, and they use models to develop explanations for the flow and conservation of energy transferred from food to an organism. This activity provides an opportunity to assess Performance Expectation HS-LS1-7 and the anaerobic aspect of Performance Expectation LS2-3. Applying HS-LS1-5, Working toward HS-LS1-6
16. Matter for Cells Students use evidence from cards to develop models that explain how the body uses matter from food. Students relate what they learn about matter and energy at the levels of different structures of an organism to what they learned in Ecology: Living on Earth about the cycling of matter and the flow of energy in ecosystems. This activity completes the second learning sequence in this unit and provides an opportunity to assess Performance Expectation HS-LS1-6. Applying HS-LS1-7
17. Designing Solutions: World Health Students apply the concepts they have learned over the course of the unit to develop an integrated approach to human health, using a case study as a model. Students work as a class to apply this integrated approach to an emerging human health challenge in their local community. In their groups, students select an emerging global pattern on which to focus, and identify the stakeholders involved. Each group member selects a stakeholder to represent and then brainstorms a solution from that stakeholder’s perspective. Group members integrate the various solutions into one proposal and present their work to the class. Working toward HS-LS2-7

Science and Global Issues: Biology, Cells: Improving Global Health

Student Book

Science and Global Issues: Biology, Redesigned for the NGSS (SGI: Biology) is a year-long hardbound book with all five units. Like the previous edition, SGI: Biology wraps the entire program around the issue of sustainability, and each unit around a specific Unit Issue to anchor the content.
Science and Global Issues: Biology, Cells: Improving Global Health

The Lab-Aids© Science Lab Notebook

The use of a science journal or notebook is strongly recommended for all science classes. A journal not only models the way scientists work but it helps to develop and reinforce students’ science learning and literacy skills.

The LAB-AIDS Science Lab Notebook was designed with “Best Practices” in mind. Each of the 160 LABLOG pages, has a 2-column design with GraphAnywhere, which allows data tables and graphs to be drawn in a fraction of the usual time, and plenty of room to record data, notes, and responses to questions. It is also three-hole punched to allow students to store the entire notebook, or individual completed pages, in their binder.

Science and Global Issues: Biology, Cells: Improving Global Health

Teacher Edition

Science and Global Issues: Biology, Cells: Improving Global Health

Student and Teacher Portals

In addition to hardbound print books, instructional materials are also available through the online portal. Student navigation through each activity is facilitated by section tabs, and the interactive design allows students to respond directly in their portal. The online student portal is also where helpful resources can be found, like LABsent (for students who are absent from a lab), Spanish text, and embedded assessments.
Science and Global Issues: Biology, Cells: Improving Global Health Item # Price Quantity
Lab-Aids© Science Lab Notebook
(bulk pricing up to 48% off)
SLN-1 $8.95